National Education System
The National Education which based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia was explained in Law Number 20 year 2003 about National Education System. The National Education functions to develop the capability, character, and civilization of the nation for enhancing its intellectual capacity, and is aimed at developing learners' potentials so that they become persons imbued with human values who are faithful and pious to one and only God; who process morals and noble character; who are healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent; and as citizens, are democratic and responsible.
Streams, Levels, and Types of Education
Educational streaming consists of formal education, non-formal education, and informal education, which can complement and enrich each other. Education can be provided with an open system through face to face and/or distance learning. Level of education is consists of basic education, secondary education, and higher education. Types of education include general education, vocational education, professional education, vocational and technical education, religious education, and special education. The streams, levels, and types of education can take the form of an educational unit organized by the Government, local governments, and/or community.
Education System Structure
- Early Childhood Education
Early childhood education is organized prior to basic education. Early childhood education is provided through formal education, non-formal education, and/or informal education. Early childhood education provided through formal education can take the form of kindergarten that is, Taman Kanak-kanak (TK), as well as Bustanul Athfal (BA)/Raudatul Athfal (RA), or other forms of formal education of the similar type. Early childhood education provided through non-formal education can take the form of play groups (KB), child care centers, or other form of non-formal education of the similar type. Early childhood education provided through informal education can take the form of family education or education in the surroundings.
- Basic Education
Basic education is the foundation for secondary education. Basic education takes the form of primary schools, that is, Sekolah Dasar (SD) as well as Madrasah lbtidaiyah (MI), or other schools of the same level, and junior secondary schools, that is, Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) as well as Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs), or other schools of the same level.
- Secondary Education
Secondary education is the continuation of basic education. Secondary education comprises general secondary education and vocational secondary education. Secondary education takes the form of senior general secondary schools, that is, Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) as well as Madrasah Aliyah (MA), and senior vocational secondary schools, that is, Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK), as well as Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (MAK), or other schools of the same level.
- Higher Education
Higher education is a level of education after secondary education consisting of diploma, bachelor (sarjana), master, specialized postgraduate programs, and doctorate programs imparted by a higher education institution. Higher education shall be provided in a flexible system. Higher education institutions can take the form of academy, polytechnic, school of higher learning (sekolah tinggi), institute, or university. Higher education institutions shall provide education, research, and community services. Higher education institutions can run academic, professional, and/or vocational and technical programmes.
Non-formal education is provided for community members who need education services which functions as a replacement, complement, and/or supplement to formal education in the frame of supporting life-long education. Non-formal education is aimed at developing learners' potentials with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and functional skills and developing personality and professional attitudes. Non-formal education comprises life-skills education, early childhood education, youth education, women empowerment education, literacy education, vocational training and internship, equivalency programs, and other kinds of education aimed at developing learners' ability.
Informal education can be in the form of self-learning, provided by families and surroundings. The outcomes of informal education shall be recognized as being equal to the outcomes of formal education and non-formal education after passing successfully in an assessment according to national education standards.
In-service education is professional education provided by concerned of government department or non-department government institutions. In-service education functions to enhance the ability and skills in carrying out duties for government officials and for official candidates in concerned government departments or non-departmental government institutions. In-service education is provided through formal education and non-formal education.
Religious education is provided by Government and/or by any group of people belonging to the same religion in accordance with the law in force. Religious education has the function to prepare learners to become community members who understand and practice religious values and/or acquire expertise in religious studies. Religious education can be conducted through formal education, non-formal education, and informal education. Religious education can take the form of diniyah education, pesantren, pasraman, pabhaja samanera, and other education form of the similar type.
Long Distance Education
Long distance education can be organized in all streams, levels, and types of education. Long distance education has the function to provide educational services to any group of people in the community who cannot attend 'face-to-face' courses or regular classes. Long distance education is organized in various forms, modes, and coverage supported by learning facilities and services, and an assessment system which ensures that the quality of graduates is in accordance with national education standards.
Special Education and Education with Special Services
Special education is provided for learners who have difficulties in following the learning process because of physical, emotional, mental, and social efficiencies, and also for those with proven intelligence and especially gifted. Education with special services is provided for learners in the remote and less-developed areas, isolated areas, and/or for learners who are victims of natural disasters, suffer from social deficiencies, and those who are economically disadvantaged.